Main Article Content


In English language teaching, teaching reading plays an important role, for reading is one of language skills. In order to succeed doing this activity, a teacher must be familiar and able to employ various teaching reading
strategies that can assist his/her students comprehend what they read. To check students’ reading comprehension, a teacher may propose several questions related to the texts being read. However, if the students have difficulties dealing with these reading comprehension questions, a teacher must be able to help them by introducing reading strategies to overcome the problems. QAR is one of reading strategies which is beneficial for a teacher to check students’ reading comprehension and frame reading question-answer activity in reading phases: pre-, while-, and post-reading; as well as to help students locate answers for the questions.


Teaching reading reading strategy question-answer relationship

Article Details

How to Cite
Muzammil, S. (2017). QAR (QUESTION ANSWER RELATIONSHIP) AS AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY TO TEACH READING. JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching), 2(2), 101 - 123.


  1. Aebersold, Jo Ann & Field, Mary Lee. (1997). from Reader to Reading Teacher: Issues and Strategies for Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Ajideh, Parviz. (2003). Schema Theory-Based Pre-Reading Tasks: A Neglected Essential in the ESL Reading-Class.
  3. The Reading Matrix, 3(1). ajideh/article.pdf
  4. Brown, H. Dauglas. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.United States of America: Longman.
  5. (2001).Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. United States of America: Longman.
  6. Burn & Roe & Ross. (1984). Teaching Reading in Today’s Elementary School. USA:Houghton Mifflin Company. Conner, Jennifer. Instructional Reading Strategy: QAR (Question/Answer Relationship).
  7. Deboer, John J. &Dallman, Martha. (1966). The Teaching of Reading. USA: Holt, Reinehart and Winston, Inc.
  8. Duke, Nell K. & Pearson, P. David. (2001). Effective Practices for Developing Reading Comprehension. Professional article. www.nationalgeographic.dom
  9. Elliott, Stephen N. (1999). Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Second Edition International Edition. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
  10. G.E.Simanjuntak. (1988). Developing Reading Skills for EFL Students. Jakarta: Depdikbud, Dirjend, Dikti, P2 LPTK.
  11. Grabe, William &Fredricka L. Stoller. (2001). Reading for Academic Purposes: Guidelines for the ESL/EFL Teacher. United States of America: Heinle&Heinle, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
  12. Harmer, Jeremy. (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching Completely Revised and Updated (3.ed.). Essex: Longman.
  13. Harris, A. J. &Sipay, E.T. (1980). How to Increase Reading Ability.New York. USA: Longman Inc.
  14. Harris, Robert. (2010). Some Ideas for Motivating Students. from http://www.
  15. Heilman, Arthur W. (1964). Principle and Practice of Teaching Reading. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merill Books, Inc. Helping Students Become Motivated Learners. From
  16. Irwin, Joan. Reseach Base for Critical Reading: Differential Instruction Across Genres. From explorer/pdf/effective practices.pdf.
  17. Nunan, David. (1992). Cooperative Language Learning and Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  18. (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. New York: Mc. GrawHill.
  19. Nuttal, Christine. (1996). Teaching Reading Skill in a Foreign Language. Heinemann: Heinemann English Language Teaching.
  20. Peng et al. (2007). Impact of Question-Answer-Relationships on Reading Comprehension. A Paper. Singapore: Pei Chun Public School and Marymount Convent. Minister of Education. Retrieved from peichun/ar peichun qar.pdf.
  21. QAR. From 12/Tools/Qar.pdf
  22. Raphael, Taffy E. (1982) Question-answering Strategies for Children. The Reading Teacher. 187-190.
  23. (1986). Teaching Question Answer Relationship, Revisited. The Reading Teacher, 39(6), 516-522.
  24. Raphael, Taffy E. & Au, Kathryn. “ QAR: Enhancing Comprehension & Test Taking Across Grades and Content Area.” The Reading Teacher 59, 3, (2005).
  25. Raphael, Taffy E. & Pearson, P. David. “Increasing Students’ Awareness of Sources of Information for Answering Questions.” American Educational Research Journal 22, 2 (1985): 217-235.
  26. Readence.J.E. (2006). Question-Answer Relationship. Las Vegas: University of Nevada. Reading for A Purpose. From
  27. Reading Strategies: Scaffolding Students’ Interaction with Text, Questions- Answer Relationship. from strategies/QAR.htm.
  28. Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies. Alliance for Excellent Education Journal: Issue Brief. Retrieved January 2004. From
  29. Ricards, Jack C. (1996). Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  30. Ricards, Jack C. & S Roger, Theodore. (2001). Approaches and Method in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.
  31. Silberstein, Sandra. (1994). Techniques and Resources in Teaching Reading. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  32. Snow, Cahterine. (2002). Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension.
  33. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Stahl, Katherine A. Daugherty. (2004). Proof, Practice, and Promise: Comprehension Strategy Instruction in The Primary Grades. The Reading Teacher, 57(7).