JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) https://journal.iainlangsa.ac.id/index.php/jl3t <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching)</strong> is a biannual journal published by UPT Pengembangan Bahasa, IAIN Langsa that publishes original research papers in applied linguistics, literature, and language teaching in June and December.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this journal is to encourage inquiry into the relationship between theoretical and practical studies in order to promote a normative approach to research on language and language- related concerns. The journal welcomes contributions in such areas of current analysis in: first, second, and foreign language teaching and learning; language in education; language planning, language testing; curriculum design and development; multilingualism and multilingual education; syntax; semantics; Sociolinguistics; morphology; psycholinguistics; pragmatics; Phonology; discourse analysis; translation; clinical linguistics; and literature and teaching.</p> UPT Pengembangan Bahasa en-US JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) 2477-5444 An Analysis of the Outcomes of Language Contacts: with Specials Reference to Arabi-Malayalam https://journal.iainlangsa.ac.id/index.php/jl3t/article/view/5004 <p>Until the 20th century, the AM script was extensively used to teach religious literature and for creative expressions among Mappilas (Muslims in Malabar) in Kerala. Most of the Mappila songs were written in AM script. The literary tradition of Mappila Muslims of Malabar is evident in the AM literature that includes Romantic Ballads, Folk Tales and Battle Songs. AM periodicals had an important role in the social reformation of the Mappilas. Several periodicals were published in AM language to preach the basic tenets of Islam to the commoners and to make them aware of the evil practices and superstitions existed in those days. This study treats AM as a contact language and it aims at isolating the contact induced elements in AM. The empiric foundation of the present study is the extensive data collected from AM literature representating different period and from different genres. The works used for data collection were Mohiyudheen Maala (1607 A D), Nool Maduhu (1737 AD), The Padappattu (War Songs) of Moyeen Kutty Vaidyar (1852AD to 1892 AD), and Chaar Dharwesh (1883 AD). The results of this study indicate that there are various borrowing patterns of grammar that occur in ARABI-MALAYALAM language contacts such as; Coordinating Conjunctions, Number Markers, Adjectives etc.</p> Sayed Saidalavi Cheerangote Copyright (c) 2022 JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 2 56 68 10.32505/jl3t.v8i2.5004 The Development of Learning Environment Based on Learning Materials in EFL Speaking Class https://journal.iainlangsa.ac.id/index.php/jl3t/article/view/4258 <p>Learning materials have essential roles in building learning environment—whether it becomes learner-centered, knowledge-centered, or assessment-centered. This study sought the trend of learning material development in basic speaking class. This study was qualitative in nature where the data quality was the key point measurement for further steps in finding the answer(s) to the research question. The data source was materials used for 14 meetings of Basic Conversation class. While the subject of this study was these materials, the object was the material criteria categorized based on Bransford’s et al. (2001) representation about learning material development in a classroom. The data analysis employed interactive analysis undergoing three steps which were data reduction, data display, and data verification. The results show that learner-centeredness was majorly developed in Meeting 2, Meeting 4, Meeting 5, Meeting 8, Meeting 9, and Meeting 10; knowledge-centeredness was majorly developed in Meeting 3, Meeting 6, and Meeting 7; and assessment-centeredness was majorly developed in Meeting 6 and Meeting 7. It is concluded that, first, the learning materials used for Basic Conversation class generally developed learner-centered environment as the focus was students’ interest and their background knowledge. Secondly, the materials also accentuated on knowledge-centeredness, though not as much as the first result. Last, there was also slight but still substantial development of assessment-centered environment. It implies that there can be found ample balance between these three types of learning centeredness to promote good learning environment.</p> Nyak Mutia Ismail Marisa Yoestara Copyright (c) 2022 JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 2 69 81 10.32505/jl3t.v8i2.4258 Gender-Based Choice of Politeness Strategies in Interviews by Desi Anwar with Queen of Denmark Margrethe II and President Erdogan https://journal.iainlangsa.ac.id/index.php/jl3t/article/view/4676 <p>Politeness strategies are a crucial element in conversations. Choosing the appropriate politeness strategies would lead to a smooth talk between the Speaker (S) and the Hearer (H). Preferred politeness strategies are different among different racial groups and also genders. In the case of an interview, the interviewer needs to suit his/her choice of politeness strategies to the interviewee’s preference so that the interviewee would feel comfortable in answering the interview questions. Thus, this current study aims to (1) examine the politeness strategies used by Desi Anwar in the interviews with Queen of Denmark Margrethe II and President Erdogan; (2) examine whether or not the choices of politeness strategies follow the preferred politeness strategies for men and women. The research questions are 1) What politeness strategies are used by Desi Anwar in the interviews with Queen of Denmark Margrethe II and President Erdogan? (2) Do the choices of politeness strategies follow the preferred strategies for men and women? The findings show that in interviewing Queen Margrethe II, Desi Anwar used to notice H, including both S and H, seeking agreement, being optimistic, and giving compliments as the politeness sub-strategies; one of them, i.e., compliment, is in line with females’ preferred politeness sub-strategies. However, in interviewing President Erdogan, Desi Anwar does not give any politeness sub-strategies preferred by males. It shows that it is easier for Desi Anwar to choose the appropriate politeness sub-strategies when she has an interviewee of the same gender.</p> Theresia Arianti Fenny Yutika Seli Copyright (c) 2022 JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 2 82 94 10.32505/jl3t.v8i2.4676 Syntactic Analysis of Movement Transformation in Bahasa Indonesia https://journal.iainlangsa.ac.id/index.php/jl3t/article/view/4809 <p>The objective of this article was to analyse the types of movement transformation which is applied in <em>Bahasa Indonesia</em>. This article aims to collect ideas, theories, and reported empirical data within the context of scholarship in the library. The theory used in this article was taken from the theory of Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG) introduced by Noam Chomsky. This article was an attempt to highlight how Chomsky’s concept called movement transfssormation works in <em>Bahasa Indonesia</em>. The data were taken from some sentences in Bahasa Indonesia. In this article, the sentences were analysed by using IC analysis. IC analysis is a method of analysing sentences by dividing them into their constituent structures. The methods used in analysing sentences were bracketing and tree diagram. Some types of movement transformation that were applied in <em>Bahasa Indonesia</em> were Affix Hopping, Interrogative (Aux Movement), Wh-Movement, Passive Transformation, Dative Movement, Topicalization, Particle Movement, and Relative Movement.</p> Ruly Adha Copyright (c) 2022 JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 2 95 113 10.32505/jl3t.v8i2.4809 An Analysis of Category Shift in Me Before You Novel by Jojo Moyes https://journal.iainlangsa.ac.id/index.php/jl3t/article/view/4692 <p>This research used a qualitative approach with descriptive design in order to find the translation shifting utilized by the translator from English to Indonesia and the translation quality assessment. The data were taken from the novel entitled Me Before You written by Jojo Moyes (2012) and from Indonesian-translated novel by Tanti Lesmana published in 2013. Furthermore, this research used Catford’s theory and Nababan et al., with the other theories, to find out the answer in the analyzing process. Catford divided translation shift into two, level shift and category shift. There are four types of category shift; structure shift, class shift, unit shift, and intra-system shift. The result showed that there were category shift that found in the data, which consist 28 unit shifts (57%), 12 intra-system shifts (23%) and 10 class shifts (20%). Translation quality assessment in three data shows less accuracy level dan the overall data indicates high accuracy level, high acceptability level, dan high readability level. As the implication, the result of this research has provided several new insights regarding the category shift in a written work which can be such a reference for other researchers in doing the similar focus of research.</p> Mutiarani Pubas Evert H. Hilman Copyright (c) 2022 JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 2 114 124 10.32505/jl3t.v8i2.4692 Improving Students’ Vocabulary Retention by Local Culture-Based Material https://journal.iainlangsa.ac.id/index.php/jl3t/article/view/4454 <p>The objective of the study is to find out how the local culture-based material is being implemented in the class as well as the effect of implementing local culture-based material in improving the rural coastal area of Riau students’ vocabulary retention. This study was conducted using Classroom Action Research (CAR) method which utilized four phases according to Kemmis and McTaggart model which included planning, action, observation, and reflection. The subject of the study was 27 students from a second-grade classroom in Sains Tahfizh Islamic Center Siak Elementary School. For the data analysis, the researcher used interview guidelines, observation checklists, field notes, and tests to gain the data. The findings discovered that the implementation of local culture-based material successfully improved students’ vocabulary retention based on all of the subject's scores that reached the minimum criteria standard of 80 in the last post-test compared to the pre-test where a lot of students did not reach the minimum standard of criteria. The study also found that the implementation of local culture-based material brought positive impacts on students’ behavior in the classroom. It developed students’ enthusiasm in learning, increased students’ motivation in vocabulary learning, and improved students’ engagement during the learning activity. This study contributed on finding the impact of local culture-based material which benefited the teachers especially in the rural coastal area of Riau, students, and also future researchers.</p> Ilma Raihana Neni Nurkhamidah Copyright (c) 2022 JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 2 125 136 10.32505/jl3t.v8i2.4454 The Correlation Between Language Learning Strategies and Students’ Thinking Styles of IAIN Langsa https://journal.iainlangsa.ac.id/index.php/jl3t/article/view/4880 <p>This study was the correlation between language learning strategies and students’ thinking styles. This study aimed to determine whether there is a significant correlation between language learning strategies and student thinking styles. This study used a quantitative correlational approach as a research method. The data were collected by Likert scale questionnaire. The research data were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 program. This program was used to find out whether there is a significant correlation between language learning strategies (X) and students‟ thinking styles (Y). The result of the questionnaire showed there is a positive correlation between language learning strategies and student thinking styles. It can be proved by the correlation coefficient (r count) and significance value (ρ) got from the calculation r count = 0.507, ρ = 0.002 &lt; 0.05. Based on the findings of the data analysis, there is positive significant relationship between language learning strategies and student thinking styles of students’ English education department IAIN Langsa.</p> Muslem Shafrida Wati Sagita Devi Siregar Copyright (c) 2022 JL3T (Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 2 137 149 10.32505/jl3t.v8i2.4880